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Alcoholics Anonymous AA is an international mutual aid fellowship  with the stated purpose of enabling its members to "stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety. Its only membership requirement is a desire to stop drinking. AA was founded in Akron, Ohio when in one alcoholic, Bill Wilson , talked to another alcoholic, Bob Smith , about the nature of alcoholism and a possible solution. Its title became the name of the organization and is now usually referred to as "The Big Book". The Traditions recommend that members remain anonymous in public media, altruistically help other alcoholics, and that AA groups avoid official affiliations with other organizations. They also advise against dogma and coercive hierarchies. Subsequent fellowships such as Narcotics Anonymous have adapted the Twelve Steps and the Twelve Traditions to their respective primary purposes. AA membership has since spread internationally "across diverse cultures holding different beliefs and values", including geopolitical areas resistant to grassroots movements. AA sprang from The Oxford Group , a non-denominational movement modeled after first-century Christianity.
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Additionally, it is part of the alphabets used for the Alemannic and the Austro-Bavarian dialects of German. Medieval writing often used doubled letters for long vowels, and the vowel continued to be written Aa. Instead of using ligatures, a minuscule E was placed above the letters A and O to create new graphemes. This construction was also applied to construct a new grapheme where an "aa" previously had been used. A minuscule O was placed on top of an A to create a new letter.